Senator from New York noted for his oratory and after-dinner speaking] of that day.”[fn]The column makes reference to additional correspondence that is missing. He tells that shortly after he had called on Tassie, he was looking through his files on a different matter. The event which triggered it was Rankin finding in his notes, “Mr. On its face it is strong evidence indeed, with a clear statement from a participant in the event. Alexander Cartwright short biography. Forgotten is the awkward detail that Rankin’s original version was stated to be taken from his original notes. AKA Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. The origin of the game was the exception. As the game spread from New York City in the 1850s, it was greeted with recognition. A New York newspaper in 1872 defended an accusation that baseball was not truly the American national game because of its English ancestry by disputing not the ancestry, but the premise that this disqualified the game: “Cricket is the English national game, and yet it is based on an old French game, just as our game is based on rounders.”[fn]New York Sunday Mercury, August 4, 1872.[/fn]. Cronkite School at ASU The game coming out of New York was not a new game, but an improved—more “scientific”—version of an ancient folk game. Seymour, Harold and Dorothy Mills. Baseball: The Early Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1960). These adjustments to memory are small in comparison with Rankin’s evolving story, with each version less accurate than the version before. It is no coincidence that the stories are so similar. There was the catcher, the pitcher, three basemen, a short field and three outfielders. His influence waned in the 1870s. This number also took on iconic status, with a team commonly called a “nine.”. Cartwright was married to Eliza Van Wie, with whom he had five children: DeWitt, Mary, Kathleen, Bruce, and Alexander III. Cartwright was officially declared the inventor of the modern game of baseball by the 83rd United States Congress on June 3, 1953. Peterson, Harold “Baseball’s Johnny Appleseed,” Sports Illustrated, April 14, 1969. Ransom, Abraham Tucker, James Fisher, and W. Vail, the latter better known in later years of the Gotham Club as “Stay-where-you-am-Wail.” In the spring of 1845, Mr. Alex J. Cartwright, who had become an enthusiast in the game, one day upon the field proposed a regular organization, promising to obtain several recruits. He led the establishment of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club (after the Knickerbocker Fire Engine Company) in 1842. Baseball’s English origin was uncontroversial in the early years. The Official Website of Alexander Cartwright, CMG Worldwide Welcomes You to the Official Website of Alexander Cartwright. Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. Often cited as a major contributor to the origins of modern American baseball, Alexander Cartwright was an influential member of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club of New York City. By the early twentieth century he was the senior New York correspondent for The Sporting News with a weekly column. In a follow-up letter of November 17, 1905, Graves placed the event between 1839 and 1841. In 1953, Congress officially declared Cartwright the inventor of modern baseball. The casual observer who knows two things about baseball’s origins knows that the Doubleday story is naive, and that the Cartwright story is the sophisticate’s version. In fact, on June 3, 1953, the U.S. Congress even recognized him as the inventor of modern baseball. Abner Doubleday was never universally accepted as baseball’s inventor. Alexander N. Cartwright - 4 March 2020 Completed Our Time to Lead Campaign in Spring 2020 ($1.3B), including the successful launch of an additional focus area for the campaign in 2017 focused specifically on student success efforts Sept 2014 – July 2017: … [fn]Dorothy Seymour Mills was not credited on the title page, but is now generally acknowledged to have co-written the book. He continued to live in Hawaii until his death on July 12, 1892 at the age of 72. His journey to California helped spread the game of baseball all throughout America. Alexander Cartwright invented modern baseball in Cooperstown, New York. He was one of the best after-dinner speakers of the day. He saw Tassie’s Mr. Wadsworth as a potential solution, carrying the game from Cooperstown to New York and introducing it to the Knickerbockers. They had all assured him that they had never played rounders or town ball, but none remembered the name of the early game they did play. Like most boys and many girls in New York, Alick had grown up playing the varieties of ball games then current in the city. Although Alexander Cartwright had passed away decades earlier, baseball historians and sports personalities were divided on Cartwright’s legitimacy as a founding father of the sport. Cartwright becomes the “good enough” creation story and many are satisfied with this. [fn]Thorn (2009), 125–29.[/fn]. The Doubleday story is indeed naïve, yet the Cartwright story is scarcely less so. ––––– The Man who Invented Baseball (New York: Scribner, 1973). He recruited Abraham G. Mills, a former president of the National League, as its chairman. Now, I may be wrong about that, but it is the impression I have had for many years, as I have heard that part of Base Ball’s origin talked of many times. Curry’s story had seemed strange to the young Rankin, so he had set out to confirm it by interviewing other old-timers. Graves told how baseball had been invented by Abner Doubleday, who went on to be a Civil War general, and taught to the boys of the village. These rules became the foundation for the modern game of baseball. The solution to this awkward situation was to vote Cartwright into the Hall of Fame and name him the “Father of Modern Baseball,” implicitly adopting the combined version of Doubleday inventing and Cartwright perfecting baseball. Most regarded this as an honorary position, but Mills himself took an active interest in its work. This changed when Sports Illustrated writer Harold Peterson took up the cause with an article, “The Johnny Appleseed of Baseball,” followed by the first full biography of Cartwright, The Man Who Invented Baseball. There is a well known interview dated to 1877 that clearly does just that. Soon the Doubleday and the Cartwright stories were combined, and this became the more common version. This is the first version. It was customary for two or three players, occasionally during the season, to go around in the forenoon of a pleasant day and muster up players enough to make a match. Grantland Rice interviewed Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who said, “It was in 1839 that old Abner Doubleday gave bases to the game. For young men, ball games were one of the city’s chief entertainments in its mild weather from April through October. The context of the conversation was the invention of baseball, so he remembered this as an invention story. They found it impossible to resist. This is why he specified that it was “Not the one who played ball,” which is a strange thing to say about the supposed inventor of baseball. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr.(April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is referred to as a "father of baseball". It is believed that Cartwright and his friends formed their baseball club in the early 1840s and named it after Manhattans volunteer Knickerbocker Engine Company. Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005). In the meantime the earlier versions, with their major, and potentially embarrassing, discrepancies lay buried in archives and forgotten. The third example comes from Rankin’s first letter, where Ferguson says of Duncan Curry “one of the real fathers of Base Ball.” Each of these “fathers” worked to advance the game in some way, but none of these was taken to mean that the individual was the inventor of baseball. He took up baseball journalism in the late 1850s. There he stablished what became the bases of modern baseball. By the 1880s his younger colleagues were openly mocking him as an old fogey. 1 (2009). He had arranged for two nines, the ins and outs. This soon changed. It was not Curry who had forgotten this man’s identity, but Rankin who had forgotten the name Curry had given. Live All You Can: Alexander Joy Cartwright and the Invention of Modern Baseball [Martin, Jay] on Amazon.com. The book is still influential, stating the widely accepted alternative to the Doubleday myth. The two details provided turn out on examination to be some combination of uninteresting and wrong. This was later misinterpreted as their being the first club ever. Similar to cricket, it is a bat-and-ball game with each team consisting of 9 players. “Then, I suppose, Base Ball sprung from Town Ball?” said I. Even as the Cartwright and Doubleday myths were dueling, the new discipline of academic sports history arose. …dates from the 1850s, when Alexander Cartwright, one of the men responsible for the invention of the game, brought it with him when he relocated to the islands. This question has held a niche in the American consciousness since the 1880s. One might suspect that he was willing to tell Rankin whatever Rankin wanted to hear. He loved using his scrapbooks as ammunition to correct other writers. The most important is that in this version Curry makes a new and radical claim: “That was the origin of base ball and it proved a success from the start.”. During his time in Hawaii, Cartwright continued to teach the game he loved so dearly, but his influence went well beyond baseball. He was a founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club AnimeBrainly AnimeBrainly A. Profession: Inventor of Modern Baseball. A special Commission of 1907 concluded that baseball had been “invented” by the Civil War hero Abner Doubleday (1819-1893) in Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. This was not new in 1905. Van Cott had been prominent in baseball circles in the 1850s into the 1860s, but there is no record of his being involved in baseball in the 1840s. Yet we think the Peterboro of today will eclipse the splendor of that behind-the-age celebrity. The book consists mostly of club histories, with a strong emphasis on names of club officers and records of matches. They proceeded to Pittsburgh, where during a stay while supplies were bought, taught the game of baseball to the young men of the town. The effects of these assumptions show in the two stories by Abner Graves and Thomas Tassie. Rankin writes how in the summer of 1877 he was standing near Brooklyn City Hall conversing with Robert Ferguson—a star player and manager of the day—when Ferguson pointed out a nearby gentleman, declared “here comes one of the real fathers of Base Ball” and introduced him to Duncan Curry. Baseball . A.G. Mills Papers: correspondence, clippings, minutes, 1877–1929. Following this epiphany, Rankin then visited various old timers who agreed that the only Wadsworth involved in baseball hadn’t started until the 1850s. This was a traditional boys’ game played on schoolyards from time immemorial. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). He also started a letter-writing campaign, enlisting the aid of the Honolulu city manager to use his official position to bring credibility to the campaign.[fn]Ibid. J. Cartwright, father of base ball.” It is apparent that in 1907 he interpreted this as Cartwright being the inventor of baseball, with further elaborations all following from this. Alexander Cartwright: The Life Behind the Baseball Legend (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009). Peterson rejected the Hall of Fame’s compromise. Any discussion of baseball and rounders by an Englishman could not but have a condescending air. [/fn], The strategy had another, more subtle, problem. The writer of a letter to a New York newspaper noted that baseball “is played in every school in England, and has been for a century or more, under the name of ‘Rounders’” while an American correspondent to a London newspaper wrote that “Cricket is becoming a very favorite game with Americans, but Base Ball, or, as you call it, Rounders, is rather more popular.” The definitive statement comes from Peverelly: “The game [baseball] originated in Great Britain, and is familiarly known there as the game of Rounders.”[fn]New York Herald, October 16, 1859; The Era (London), October 31, 1858; Peverelly, 338.[/fn]. This academic tradition often makes the effort to debunk the Doubleday myth at length while completely ignoring the Cartwright myth. To run and get the ball thrown in from the field, or when thrown wildly by the catcher when returning it to the pitcher. En 1938, fue elegido para el Salón de la Knickerbocker Baseball Club. By the outbreak of the Civil War it was played across the country, as far west as San Francisco and as far south as New Orleans. The Cartwright story became the standard alternative. Join SABR’s Golden Lineup to help us celebrate our 50th Anniversary! Live All You Can: Alexander Joy Cartwright and the Invention of Modern Baseball The first version, from January 15, 1905, has some interesting features. In fairness, Chadwick made himself a tempting target. [fn]Peverelly 340. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is one of several people sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball". Birthplace: New York City Location of death: Honolulu, HI Cause of death: Blood poisoni. In 1910 Alfred Spink, founder of The Sporting News, published The National Pastime, a history of baseball. Base Ball: How to Become a Player (Philadelphia: Athletic Publishing, 1888). In 1845, Cartwright laid out the key rules of the game, including the dimensions of the field. For a more in-depth description of our consulting and clearance services, please visit our website here. In any case there is no reason to doubt it. The Invention of Baseball. With the final version, published in Spink’s book, Rankin pulls out all the stops. Signature. Over the next five years it would evolve into the very different account previously quoted. An era that celebrated Thomas Edison and Samuel Morse would naturally look for an inventor of its national pastime. Since joining the University of Missouri in August 2017, Chancellor Alexander N. Cartwright has led the university through strategic enrollment and research growth, as well as the successful completion of the university’s $1.3 billion fundraising campaign. View Player Bio from the SABR BioProject. It was about 1840 that Cartwright figured 90 feet was the best distance from home to first, from first to second, from second to third and from third on back to home.”[fn]Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 9, 1934.[/fn]. It couched the call for reminiscences as a search for baseball’s origin, implying that the origin was within living memory: no earlier than about 1830 or so. Abner Doubleday, for example, was acknowledged by the Mills Commission as the inventor of baseball. He also identified the man: I think it was a Mr. Wadsworth. We had no name in particular for it. The new version would be reported in his column published April 2, 1908. He determined the diamond-shaped infield, the foul lines and the three strike rule. The plan caused a great deal of talk, but finally we agreed to try it. Doubleday was a United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. Any recollection from that era was interpreted through the assumption that it must be from baseball’s earliest youth, distorting the entire enterprise. Menke, Frank G. Encyclopedia of Sports (New York: F. G. Menke, Inc., 1939). Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. View Alexander Cartwright's Page at the Baseball Hall of Fame (plaque, photos, videos). Its harbinger was the work of Robert W. Henderson. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. was one of seven children born to a New York City sea merchant in 1820. Cartwright was married to Eliza Van Wie, with whom he had five children: DeWitt, Mary, Kathleen, Bruce, and Alexander III. This assumption would lead to the Doubleday myth. Cartwright became actively involved in political and social matters as well by serving as chief of the fire department and helping establish the Honolulu Library and Reading Room. The next time you’re out at the ballpark enjoying America’s favorite pastime, you can thank Alexander Cartwright. This was just the beginning of many games that would be played between the two teams, and the beginning of a pastime that would soon begin to sweep the nation. Invention of the modern game of baseball. The Knickerbockers crossed the Hudson river to play … Both Abner Doubleday and Alexander Cartwright came from this: Doubleday through the front door as the official candidate, and Cartwright through the back door as the alternate. Rankin writes that this dialogue was copied from notes he had written at that time. Bruce Cartwright wrote a series of letters promoting his grandfather’s case. We know from the club records that their games had as few as six and as many as thirteen on a side. The remaining question was where the batter stood. No one thought baseball new at the time, or for decades afterwards. As early as 1868 Henry Chadwick was called the father of baseball for his early work in promoting the game. By the late 1860s and early 1870s he was the premier baseball writer in the country, with a seat in the inner circle, where he chaired the rules committee for several years. Since joining the University of Missouri in August 2017, Chancellor Alexander Cartwright Alexander Cartwright (1820-1892) of New York invented the modern baseball field in 1845. Negro League. With the Knickerbockers, Cartwright was a respected voice who helped guide one of the more renowned clubs in New York’s burgeoning baseball scene in the mid-1800s. To see how it came to be, we will first look at Henry Chadwick, the only journalist with a plaque in the Baseball Hall of Fame; at William Rankin, the father of the Cartwright myth; and then at the Mills Commission, its incubator. His proposal was acceded to, and Messrs. W. R. Wheaton, Cartwright, D. F. Curry, E.R. 326 pages. Alexander Cartwright and the members of his New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, devised the first rules and regulations that were accepted for the modern game of baseball. We would take our bats and balls with us and play any sort of a game. One might just as well argue that Mr. Edison “modified” the old English candle and formulated the incandescent light in use now, as to say base ball sprung from rounders or its “Americanized edition, town ball.”. Alexander Cartwright is considered by some to be the true father of the sport of baseball, although his story may be as much of a myth as that of Abner Doubleday inventing the game in the pastoral setting of Cooperstown, NY. Original rules of baseball. Under his direction, the club drafted and adopted the first formalized set of rules for the game. Alexander Joy Cartwright Jr.’s dream was baseball. The additional information that he held a position at the customs house confirms what many have suspected, that Tassie was indeed thinking of Louis Wadsworth. The two most well-known stories of baseball’s creation — that of Abner Doubleday in 1839 and Alexander Cartwright in 1845 — are intimately connected: born together in the early 20th century and joined ever since. By the 1870s he was in New York as a junior sports reporter, often working for the same papers as Chadwick. All columns are from The Sporting News.[/fn]. If, as was also common, the bases were stakes driven into the ground, the modern placement for the batter presented an obvious problem. The fix was in. Reach him at rrhersh@yahoo.com. Dec. 2, 2020. He accepted at face value Rankin’s account and the doctored gold rush journal. Tassie remembered a story from 1857 and adjusted it to make it about baseball’s invention. His interest rather is in refuting Chadwick’s rounders theory (with town ball as the intermediate form) by establishing that none of the old New York ballplayers recalled ever playing “town ball” or “rounders.”. [fn]Once again Ward was the more insightful. If the bases were flat, as in modern baseball, the batter usually stood in the modern location. [/fn], “One afternoon,” continued Mr. Curry, “when we had gathered on the lot for a game, someone, but I do not remember now who it was, had presented a plan, drawn up on paper, showing a ball field, with a diamond to play on–eighteen men could play at one time. They were imagined by people working from the same assumptions in the same milieu. He managed the neat trick, however, of moving gracefully into elder statesman status. Most people were willing to defer to him about baseball history. He is the man widely regarded as being most responsible for formulating the modern rules of baseball. In the 1850s nine came to be the usual size in match games between clubs, and this was codified in the 1857 rules revision. Full Name: Alexander Joy Cartwright Nicknames: Alick. The Cartwright version is supported by the Doubleday version simply by virtue of being less untrue. The Honolulu-based Hawaiian Islanders… The next answer is that Alexander Cartwright invented baseball in 1845 in New York City. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY UNDERSTANDING OF THE ORIGIN OF BASEBALL. Congress cited this book when naming Cartwright as the true inventor of the game. Who invented baseball? Where it is often pointed out that Doubleday played no part whatsoever in baseball, Cartwright at least played a legitimate, if limited, role in the history of the game. Rankin also had an ace in the hole: scrapbooks filled with baseball items from the New York Clipper, a major baseball newspaper in the early years. While Cartwright’s exact role in the history of baseball has been debated, it is clear he was one of the most important figures in the development of modern baseball, so much so that Congress has officially recognized him as the inventor of the modern game. Spink, Alfred H. The National Game, second edition. We have seen how Graves was influenced by these assumptions, particularly that baseball had been invented within living memory. There matters lay until three years later. 555 N. Central Ave. #416 EL MITO DE ALEXANDER CARTWRIGHT COMO INVENTOR DEL BEISBOL Por CÉSAR GONZÁLEZ GÓMEZ gutogonz@gmail.com INTRODUCCIÓN Una vez derrumbado el mito de Abner Doubleday como inventor del béisbol se recurre a la figura de Alexander Cartwright para encontrar la respuesta al orígen del juego. Mills was unable to track down that name through the Customs Service, but in recent years baseball historian John Thorn has found that Louis Wadsworth maintained an office there as an independent attorney, not an employee of the Customs Service. It was Dick Pearce who first made the short field one of the most important on the ball field. During stops at St. Louis and Independence, Mo., he also introduced the game. Cartwright was born Alexander Joy Cartwright Jr. on April 17, 1820 in New York City. While working as a bank clerk and volunteer firefighter in New York, Cartwright started playing a popular game known as “town ball” or “base ball.” As Rankin related Curry’s story about a man with a paper, Tassie broke in excitedly and confirmed the story. April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892. It describes a group of men meeting to play a game, but none could recall what that game was called. Their interpretation requires we take into account not only the assumptions of the early twentieth century, but the assumptions of the 1870s. It could not help that rounders was a low prestige sport, played by schoolgirls and the working class. Mills was preparing to issue the commission’s report. Ball, Bat and Bishop: The Origin of Ball Games (New York: Rockport Press, 1947). The two stories are intimately connected: born together in the early twentieth century and joined ever since. He and his team played an official game a year later. More bio, uniform, draft, salary info The Mills Commission never even got that far. He came across an unrelated letter from 1876, on the back of which he had written “Mr. The search proved fruitless and so he wrote on January 6, 1908 to Rankin, asking him to consult further with Mr. Tassie for more details. Rankin’s introduction of Alexander Cartwright once again brings us to the assumptions of the 1870s. Alexander Cartwright and the members of his New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, devised the first rules and regulations for the modern game of baseball. Born in New York City on April 17 1820, Alexander Cartwright's first job after leaving school at the age of 16 was as a clerk at a bank. He mocked the Doubleday story and gave full credit to Cartwright. The inventor of Baseball Alexander Cartwright. More bio, uniform, draft, salary info Why your go-to-market strategy should be industry focused; Dec. 1, 2020. 20 illustrations Alexander Cartwright: The Life Behind the Baseball Legend by Monica Nucciarone University of Nebraska Press (2009) $27.95, cloth. Alexander N. Cartwright - 4 March 2020 Completed Our Time to Lead Campaign in Spring 2020 ($1.3B), including the successful launch of an additional focus area for the campaign in 2017 focused specifically on student success efforts Sept 2014 – July 2017: … Today, he rests in Nuuanu Valley Cemetery in Honolulu, where he has been visited by baseball greats such as Babe Ruth. It might be a jocular reference to his range factor, but this explanation is purely speculative.[/fn]. He had settled on the Doubleday story, placing the event in 1839. They formed baseball’s collective understanding of its history, including Rankin’s final version of the Duncan Curry interview. Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. Resistance to this interpretation soon arose, on both structural and patriotic grounds. Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. [fn]The letters cited in this section are in the A.G. Mills Papers in the A. Bartlett Giamatti Research Center of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. He is a member of the SABR Nineteenth Century and Origins committees. The casual observer who knows two things about baseball’s origins knows that the Doubleday story is naive, and that the Cartwright story is the sophisticate’s version. Block, David. The letter relates how in 1877 Rankin, then a junior reporter, was introduced to Duncan Curry, the first president of the Knickerbocker Club. 213–19. The Doubleday story is indeed naïve, yet the Cartwright story is scarcely less so. The unnamed man with the diagram makes for an odd story, mysteriously arriving to reveal the gospel of baseball, and then disappearing again, or perhaps being one of the group, but with no one recalling whom. This article was written by Richard Hershberger, This article was published in the Spring 2014 Baseball Research Journal. On our website, you can also learn more about additional CMG services, including our work as the licensing representative for hundreds of legends, and our intellectual property valuation services. Live All You Can: Alexander Joy Cartwright and the Invention of Baseball by Jay Martin Columbia University Press (2009) $22.95, cloth. Spink’s was one of several books on baseball history published in the early twentieth history. Understand, also, that I am not the father of the game, neither am I its great defender. A. Bartlett Giamatti Research Center, National Baseball Hall of Fame. The History of Baseball - Alexander Cartwright Baseball was invented by Alexander Cartwright. “Four Fathers of Baseball” http://thornpricks.blogspot.com/2005/07/four-fathers-of-baseball.html. It could not, however, stand alone. Cartwright was a bookseller and volunteer firefighter in Manhattan. Alexander J. Cartwright : The game of baseball was invented by Alexander J. Cartwright, history of baseball bats. Rankin had been arguing against a rounders origin before the commission was ever formed. famous player during the Roaring '20s Baseball Hall of Fame founded in Cooperstown, NY. It specifies two details of the game, that it was played on a diamond and there were nine players on a side, before going off on a digression about Dick Pearce (who was nine years old in 1845). The rounders theory never had a chance. He continued to promote the game he created, teaching it to people in the towns he passed along the way. An enterprise as successful as baseball accumulated ample claims to paternity. man named abner doubleday invented the game known as john grisham the ball used in baseball was invented by alexander joy cartwright one of the first publications of a famous young man abner doubleday was an inventor of baseball he invented the game which is known as baseball in cooperstown new york during the summers in 1839 Alexander Cartwright Alexander ″Alick″ Joy Cartwright Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) was a founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. There are good reasons to doubt this older boy was the Abner Doubleday who went on to be a general in the Civil War, but even that is a minor problem. 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